The primary purpose of orthotic therapy in most pathologies is to reduce abnormal force on the body structure that is being injured. In the case of plantar fasciitis /heel spur syndrome, the primary problem is excessive tension on the plantar fascia. Thus, in this situation, the primary function of custom orthotics should be to decrease tension on the plantar fascia. In other pathologies, the primary function of the orthoses will be different as will the orthotic prescription. Even within the single pathology of plantar fasciitis there are many different biomechanical causes and many different optimum prescriptions. Probably the most common (problem) is just going to be skin problems - rubbing and blisters," says Jeffrey Wu, MD , an IU Health Orthopedic Surgeon with a specialization in feet and ankles. “If you're really an extreme heel wearer, and you're doing a lot of walking, and if you're foot is at such an abnormal angle, you're prone to fractures and things like that.” Bunions can occur for a number of reasons, but a common cause is wearing shoes that fit too tightly. Bunions can also develop as a result of an inherited structural defect or stress on your foot or a medical condition, such as arthritis. Black Butcherbird friend. The black being the quintessential element. A big black CracticidÃ¦ with a vicious beak and much the same evil eye as a crow. At first I thought it was a Chough! Fancy that eh? Just another White Winged Chough! Until I looked twice of course." Eddie was shaking his head in amazement. "Just how a man might mix up a Butcherbird and a Chough, even for a second, is beyond me!" Eddie didn't even hear the question; he was totally engrossed in a close inspection of a drab little Fuscous Honeyeater. In his eyes more beautiful than even an Australorp, and far more precious than gold. Tarsal tunnel syndrome occurs due to compression of posterior tibial nerve. The tibial nerve that branches from the sciatic nerve, runs down the leg and connects to the ankle. The part of the nerve that lies inside the ankle is referred to as posterior tibial nerve. Standing or exercising for a long time puts undue pressure on the ankle, resulting in unbearable shooting pain from behind the heel. Exercise – Athletes often overdo it and find themselves adding strain to the heel of the foot. Taking the proper precautions before and after workout, wearing supportive athletic shoes, and gradually warming up to a more rigorous work-out can prevent possible injuries. Plantar fascitis is an enthesitis at the insertion of the tendon into the calcaneumIt produces localized pain when standing and walking ,and tenderness in the mid line.It occurs alone or in seronegative spondarthritis. Calcaneal bursitis is a pressure - induced ( adventitious ) bursa that produces diffuse pain and tenderness under the heel.Compression of the heel pad from the sides is painful ,which distinguishes it from plantar fascia pain. Achilles tendonitis is an enthesitis at the insertion of the tendon into the calcaneum.This is traumatic or it can complicate seronegative spondarthritisRaising the shoe heel reduces pain.Occasionally a low-pressure corticosteroid injection near the enthesis is necessary. An 'orthotic' (orthotic insole, shoe insert or orthosis) is a device placed inside the shoes with the purpose of restoring our normal foot function. Different types of foot orthotics are available, from special custom-made devices (prescribed by a Podiatrist) to so called ‘off-the-shelf’ orthotics which can be purchased from pharmacies, good quality shoe stores or specialty websites. Stress fractures are an injury to bone caused by unaccustomed stress from running, marching, or walking. They are often seen in military recruits or athletes as they increase their training. They may also be seen in people with hormonal imbalances or prior surgery that has altered the way their foot or ankle functions. Although a pooling of data from 12 studies showed a statistically significant association between use of lateral wedge insoles and lower pain in medial knee osteoarthritis, among trials comparing wedge insoles with neutral insoles, there was no significant or clinically important association between use of wedge insoles and reduction in knee pain, according to a study in the August 21 issue of JAMA Success rate for the procedure is approximately 70%. Although symptoms may not be completely eliminated, they do tend to diminish to a point where pain is significantly less disabling and surgical intervention is no longer indicated.